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    No More Peek-a-Boo: Inventing a Modern Periscope

    The physical design and internal mechanics of a periscope has changed quite a bit over the years, but there’s one thing that still remains the same: in order to see what’s going on above the water even the most high-tech modern periscope still has to poke it’s little head out above the surface. And when you’re a military machine whose main goal is stealth that isn’t exactly a smart move. That’s why, for at least a decade, some scientists and engineers have been trying to figure out how to build a virtual periscope. One that can see what’s happening all around without having to come up for air. And they’re starting to make some significant and exciting progress.

    Photo credit: US Navy Naval Historical Center

    An Extremely Brief History of Periscopes

    According to the US Navy, the first periscope was designed in 1854 by a French chemist named Edme Hippolyte Marie-Davie. It was simply a long tube with mirrors set at 45 degrees angles at each opening. There were several attempts to perfect the design through the following decades--among them a 65-foot, 130-ton tube set with eight prisms designed by American John Holland in 1900, which gave the viewer a very dim 360 degree view of the horizon and could actually be rotated.

    Image credit: US Patent Office

    The modern periscope, or, at least, the one we all remember from Looney Toons, was a perfected version of Holland’s design. Patented in 1911 by Dr. Frederick O. Kollmorgen, the new version used two telescopes instead of a series of lenses (or prisms). Because it didn’t need prisms at the opening or a series of lenses throughout, the new periscope could be built at a variety of lengths and its opening above the surface could be much smaller. Kollmorgen started a company to develop and update his telescope design and, in fact, the company he created (called Kollmorgen) still exists today.

    Kollmorgen’s original design went through several upgrades through the years--adding night vision, star pattern recognition systems, optical magnification, and antennas for satellite communication, but the overall concept mostly remained the same. Then, in the 1960s, the US Navy created the Type 18 periscope, which added television cameras that allowed its images to be displayed anywhere on the submarine and also recorded.

    In modern US submarines, beginning around 2004 on all Virginia-class attack subs, the periscopes were replaced by photonics masts. These are telescoping arms that have visible and infrared digital cameras at the top. Since they don’t use mirrors or telescopes, there is no need for the control room to be located directly below the masts anymore. Because of this, the Navy has relocated these sub’s operations area away from the hull and down one deck where there is a lot more space.

    Designing Underwater Robots for Deeper Dives

    In May, the remotely operated underwater vehicle Nereus descended 10,000m to the bottom of the Kermadec Trench, one of the ocean’s deepest, and never came back. It’s believed that Nereus—a hybrid remotely operated vehicle, or ROV, that could also operate autonomously—likely imploded. The pressure at such depths can be as great as 16,000 pounds per square inch.

    What’s weird is that Nereus was *designed* to withstand such pressure. That’s what made it unique. Unlike most other ROVs, which get their buoyancy from a material called syntactic foam, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI), which designed and built Nereus, opted for a radical new design involving hundreds of ceramic spheres instead.

    Photo credit: WHOI

    While we still don’t really know how or why Nereus failed–it completed numerous previous dives, some to deeper depths, without issue–there’s no denying that its novel design allowed Nereus to dive deeper, be built lighter, and stay underwater longer than probably any other ROV in existence. So, implosion aside, why aren’t we yet building more ROVs like Nereus—even the ones that aren’t destined for places as deep or pressures as intense as those of the Kermadec Trench?

    Putting anything underwater requires a delicate balance between buoyancy and weight, explains Andy Bowen, director of the WHOI’s National Deep Submergence Facility, and maintaining that balance becomes more difficult the deeper you go down.

    “You want the vehicle to be slightly positively buoyant, or at least neutrally buoyant. So all the stuff that weighs something has to be offset by something that doesn’t weigh as much–or, in fact provides, a buoyancy offset,” Bowen says. “You can broadly divide these things into parts that float or parts that don’t.”

    Syntactic foam block machined for ROV use.

    Obviously, batteries, cameras, lights and motors are the things that don’t, and it’s the job of people like Bowen to make them float. Traditionally, manufacturers have used a material known as syntactic foam, which is composite material filled hollow microscopic glass bubbles. These bubbles lower the material’s density, making it buoyant. It’s flexible, well-understood, and has been in use for decades. When you look at a photo of a typical ROV, it's the brightly colored material mounted to the top of the robot's frame. "You can make syntactic foam to go just about anywhere you want it to go,” says Bowen, “but with a price.”

    In Brief: Nintendo's New 3DS More Buttons, Right Thumbstick

    Right before PAX weekend, Nintendo announced a refresh to their 3DS handheld line, dubbed the "New Nintendo 3DS". Coming out in both regular and XL sizes, these new consoles are slightly larger than the current models, but adds extra shoulder buttons and a second right circle pad (thumbstick) located above the regular four face buttons. The small circle pad may look awkwardly sized and positioned, but we're withholding judgement until we get to use it. Also added is NFC support for Nintendo's upcoming amiibo toy line, as well what Nintendo claims to be an improved 3D screen. The top display is still a lenticular 800x240 panel (400x240px per eye), but the stereoscopy will now adjust its parallax based on eye-tracking with the front camera--which could be a result of this July 2014 eye-tracking patent. Battery life is also supposedly improved. Are you interested in the New Nintendo 3DS? Is this something you'd like us to review or take apart? These portables are coming out in Japan next month, but we don't expect to see them in North America until some time in 2015.

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    Testing: The LG G3 Android Smartphone

    Just a few years ago LG was not considered a serious player in most smartphone markets. The most desirable devices the company made all wore Google's Nexus badge, but its own phones fell victim to questionable software and the whims of partner carriers. The LG G2 won some fans for its slick design and passable software, but it's the new LG G3 that might have a shot at completing LG's Android turnaround.

    LG isn't playing second banana to Samsung in South Korea or anywhere else this time around. In fact, the G3 is a contender for the best flagship phone of 2014. Let's take a closer look at what it's like to live with this device and its 5.5-inch 1440p screen.

    Surprisingly Small for a Huge Phone

    The LG G3 has a huge 5.5-inch screen, which makes it one of the larger phones we've used. However, the size of the overall device is within a few millimeters of the Galaxy S5 with its 5.1-inch display. LG has been focusing on slimming down its devices in recent years, and the G3 is the culmination of those efforts. It's almost all screen on the front. I'm not aware of another phone that has narrower bezels than the G3 (other than that new Sharp Aquos device).

    One of LG's favorite hardware twists is the rear-facing button cluster. Whereas most phones have the power and volume buttons on the side, LG places them on the back. This helps make the sides a bit slimmer and it turns out to be surprisingly convenient. The power button is almost exactly where your finger falls when you hold the device. It's reminiscent of Motorola's dimple on the back of the Moto X, except it actually does something.

    3D Printing Material Mimics Balsa Wood Strengths

    "Materials scientists at Harvard University have created lightweight cellular composites via 3D printing. These fiber-reinforced epoxy composites mimic the structure and performance of balsa wood. Because the fiber fillers align along the printing direction, their local orientation can be exquisitely controlled. These 3D composites may be useful for wind turbine, automotive and aerospace applications, where high stiffness- and strength-to-weight ratios are needed." More info here. (Thanks, Sean)

    In Brief: Intel Launches Haswell-E CPU, X99 Chipset

    Late last week, Intel officially launched Haswell-E, its ultra high-end Desktop CPU based on its Haswell architecture. The follow-up to Ivy Bridge-E is Intel's first eight-core desktop CPU, as previous Extreme Edition desktop CPUs topped out at six cores while eight and more cores were reserved for the server market. To run the Core i7-5960X, Intel also launched the X99 chipset, which is its first to support DDR4 memory. Yep, DDR4 is finally here to desktops. Built on the same 22nm process that existing Haswell chips use, Intel's new $1000 CPU has a modest base clock of 3GHz and turbos up to 3.5GHz, though overclocking well into 4GHz is possible. We met with Intel on Friday at PAX to learn about the new CPU and chipset and will be testing it in the near future, with a specific interest on video encoding performance as compared to GPU-accelerated video processing.

    Norman
    Google Play App Roundup: Google News and Weather, Back to Bed, and Month

    You probably want more apps, but more than that, you want the right ones. That;s what we're here to deliver with the weekly Google Play App Roundup. This is where you'll find the best new and newly updated apps and games on Android. Just click the link to head right to Google Play.

    This week Google finally updates one of its old apps, you go back to bed, and calendars get pretty.

    Google News and Weather

    Google included a neat news and weather widget in stock Android back in the Froyo days. This widget has continued to exist over the years, but never saw an update--until now. The News and Weather Widget had been updated and added to the Play Store for most devices. It's pretty awesome.

    This is actually an app and a widget, but the app portion has been expanded quite a bit with this update. It used to do almost nothing. You've got two choices for widgets. One is a simple 3x1 widget that can be set to display weather, news, or both. This one isn't resizable, though. That makes it a little hard to fit into your homescreen layout.

    The other widget is 2x2, but that's just the default size. It can be changed and the content will be reorganized dynamically. Weather is up at the top and there's a scrollable list of news stories below. Tapping on any of the headlines sends you straight to the browser, but the weather boots you to the full News and Weather app.

    You won't get as much weather data in this app as you would in a dedicated app. Expanding the weather section at the top offers weather and precipitation graphs. Each news story has a drop down that shows related headlines as well. The default view is all the top stories, but the slide out navigation menu can be used to change news categories.

    I've tested this app on devices like the LG G3 and Nexus 5 and it works the same on both. It's responsive and very modern looking. This is another example of Google bringing its preferred Android experience to more devices. The app works well, but I'd say the reason to use it is the cool widgets. It's free, so check it out.

    Getting Started With the Printrbot Simple Metal

    Norm and I kicked off July by building a 3D printer, the Printrbot Simple Metal It was the third printer we’ve built, and it was interesting building a printer with a metal frame, but once we got it assembled and did a couple of test prints, we didn’t have time to touch it for a month. I’ve spent much of the last week dialing in the printer, figuring out its nuances, and getting decent prints out of it. We’ll do a Tested In-Depth video with it at some point in the future, but in the meantime, here's what I've learned so far.

    First, in the time since we finished the build, the instructions for building the kit version of the Printrbot Simple Metal have been updated. The kit’s assembly instructions have been completely revamped, addressing many of the issues we had during the assembly. Along with good pictures, the newest version of the instructions provides written instructions for non-obvious steps.

    I love that the Printrbot makes it easy to make slight Z-axis calibration changes in software rather than hardware.

    The instructions for calibrating and making the first print are quite good, and I love that the Printrbot makes it easy to make slight Z-axis calibration changes—a common cause of bad prints—in software rather than hardware. It took two or three false starts, but we were able to print a fan shroud that was good enough to work in two or three tries. Because of the way this type of 3D printing works, it sometimes takes a few minutes for failures to become obvious. To give context, when we built our first printer, the original Makerbot Cupcake, it took almost a week of tweaking to get usable prints.

    Once you get past the first print, configuring the software gets a little hairy.

    Norm and I Are On Our Way to Seattle

    Sorry for the slow news days today and tomorrow. Norm and I are both travelling, and will be incommunicado for the first part of the day. If you're coming to PAX in Seattle, we'll be there, and there will be a Tested meetup on Friday night from 6:30 to 8:30. Follow Will and Norm on Twitter, and we'll post the details on Friday afternoon. (Premium members check your email, you already have the details). We'll be.around all weekend, playing board games, hanging out with people and checking out PAX. Also, I'll be at the PAX Rumble on Sunday morning, fighting for your respect. Please, come and support me in my quest to not embarrass myself while playing a wrestling game for the first time ever.

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    Testing: Sony RX100 MK III Compact Camera

    I've been on the hunt for a pocket camera to complement my DSLR, and spent time with cameras with sensors ranging from micro 4/3 to full-frame. My test of Sony's RX100 Mark II made me seriously consider the trade off between body size and sensor size. There were several things that held it back from being ideal for my day to day use, but I realized that getting a compact camera with an APS-C or Full-Frame sensor would compete too directly with my DSLR. Going for portability made more sense for a secondary camera. So for my recent birthday, I ended up buying Sony's RX100 Mark III, based on the praise other photographers have given it. It arrived a little over a week ago, and I've been shooting a lot with it since. And even though I've already committed to the camera, I'm still running it through the practical testing that I would give any new camera to gauge its strengths and weakness, and to relay that experience to you. So here's what that shooting experience has been like so far.

    One of the reasons I felt I would be comfortable buying the RX100 III before using it is because it inherits almost all of the great things I like about the RX100 II. That includes size, weight, tilting LCD, image quality, manual controls, and wi-fi features. The size and weight are perfect for these cameras to be stowed in a jacket pocket (though the MK III is slightly thicker and heavier than both previous models). I was already satisfied with the RAW and JPEG image quality from Sony's 20MP 1" -type sensor, even if the lens on the MK II was a little lacking. And I have been very impressed with the Wi-Fi connectivity of Sony's cameras, which I used extensively on the a7 and RX100 II. In using this 3rd-generation RX100 the things I wanted to specifically test for were the new zoom lens and autofocus speed, as well as the digital viewfinder.

    The OLED viewfinder is probably the most noticeable addition to the RX100 line, and surprisingly doesn't add to the heft or bulk of the camera. There's still a built-in flash, and the only thing you lose is a hotshoe that was on the MK II. This EVF pops up on the left side and needs to be extended a little bit before use, so you can't switch to it as instantaneously as you would a fixed EVF like on the Fuji cameras. The eye proximity sensor has proven to be accurate, though. I found the 800x600 resolution (100% coverage, .59x magnification) sufficient for framing and focusing, since I use digital peaking assists anyway for finding focus. I know some people who only use EVFs for their shooting, but I typically can't stand the latency--my brain wants the response of an optical viewfinder. But I have been using the EVF on this MKIII outdoors and even for reviewing photos. If Sony offered a version of the MK III without the EVF for a lower price, I would've gone with that one. But the $150 price difference between the models accounts for the EVF, the new lens, and new processor.

    Below are my sample photos taken so far, with notes on what they say about the camera. The photos were not post-processed at all, just RAW files ingested in Lightroom and resized/exported as JPEGs. Click each of them to enlarge.

    What the FAA Thinks of RC Aircraft, and Why it Matters

    The past few weeks have witnessed developments that could spell the end of radio-control aeromodeling as we know it. In short, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has claimed jurisdiction over certain RC activities. This move comes as part of the FAA’s attempt to grasp control of the rapidly expanding presence of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the national airspace. What was once a relaxing pastime could soon be a punishable offense. Here's how that could affect you and your FPV multi-rotor flying friends (like us!).

    Genesis of a Duel

    The FAA’s recent actions have put them sideways with the bulk of the model airplane community. The group on the front lines defending the interests of modelers is the Academy of Model Aeronautics (AMA). To fully understand the situation, a short history lesson is in order.

    In February of 2012, the FAA Modernization and Reform Act became law. Among many other things, this law instructed the FAA to integrate UAS activities into the national airspace. At that time, the FAA had no specific regulations governing the use of these machines, or even a firm definition of what constitutes a UAS.

    Anticipating that the law would give birth to blanket policies that could negatively impact aeromodeling, the AMA fought for provisions to exclude hobbyists. At the time, the FAA stated no ill will towards RC modelers and Congress had no intention to impose any regulations on the hobby. The win-win provision that emerged is Section 336 of the FAA act – Special Rule for Model Aircraft. It prohibits the FAA from introducing any new rules to regulate “hobby or recreational” use of model aircraft.

    Taken at face value, the FAA’s new stance on aeromodeling would have drastic and far-reaching implications to the hobby as well as the small industry that it supports.

    Mood Check: AMA – Relieved, FAA – Overwhelmed

    Since that time, the FAA and AMA have met regularly to ensure that both parties were on the same page as the FAA moved forward with its obligations under the new law. Although the FAA’s progress was glacial and milestone dates continually moved to the right, they frequently reassured the AMA that they had nothing to worry about.

    Mood Check: AMA – Cautiously Optimistic, FAA – “What was that due date again?”

    In June of this year, the FAA released a memo indicating its interpretation of Section 336. Not only was this memo produced absent of any coordination with the AMA, its wording is contrary to previous statements made by the FAA. Taken at face value, the FAA’s memo-defined stance on aeromodeling would have drastic and far-reaching implications to the hobby as well as the small industry that it supports.

    Mood Check: AMA – Deceived, FAA – “You mad bro?”

    This Is The Best Wi-Fi Router

    This post was done in partnership with The Wirecutter. Read the original full article below at TheWirecutter.com

    If your laptop, smartphone, or tablet uses the latest wireless-AC networking technology and you’re shopping for a new router, you should get the Netgear R6250. The benefits of wireless-ac are great: super-fast performance that can be stronger at longer distances than wireless-n routers. More than 100 hours of combined testing and research led us to the $150 R6250, which boasts the best combination of speed, price, and features of any router in its price range, and unlike more expensive and newer routers, has technology your most modern gear can actually take advantage of.

    How we decided on the R6250

    Our pick supports two data streams for wireless-n and three for wireless-ac. Our research indicates that two-stream wireless-N and -AC technology are the most common connection types for laptops, tablets, and smartphones, while three-stream wireless-ac is what you'll find on new top-of-the-line laptops like the latest MacBook Pro.

    How did we pick this price point? Basically, a $200 router can be faster than our main pick, but only if your devices can take advantage of it—most things we own today can’t. On the other hand, paying less than $100 for a wireless-ac router means sacrificing speed and/or range, and you might also lose a number of useful features, like media streaming, parental controls, and remote access.

    Our router finalists for speed and features, based on a lot of research and interviewing with the best wireless gear testers, were the Netgear R6250 ($150), Asus RT-AC56U ($112), Asus RT-AC66U ($170), and TP-Link Archer C7 ($99). We tested them by running performance benchmarks at four different testing stations inside a 2,700 square-foot, one-story house.

    Tested In-Depth: Amazon Fire Phone

    We were curious when Amazon announced their Fire phone, and intrigued by the Dynamic Perspective and Firefly features that Amazon claims sets its handset apart from other flagship smartphones. So we bought a Fire phone to test and show you how those features work--or rather, how they don't really work well. Here's why we couldn't wait to return this phone for a refund after testing.

    Designing a Custom Arcade Cabinet in Sketchup

    As soon as Norm and I decided to build an arcade cabinet, we ran into a problem: We didn't actually know how to build an arcade cabinet. We knew what we wanted, at least in general--a four-player MAME cocktail cabinet that could support fighting games and beat 'em ups and pretty much anything else we could throw at it. How hard could it be to find exactly what we wanted online, then replicate it at home? Turns out: Pretty hard.

    ArcadeDepot, one of the most popular sources for arcade kits, was knocked out of commission by Hurricane Sandy. The other pre-built kits we looked at didn't offer customization. That left user-built arcade cabinets to work off of. The Arcade Controls forums and wiki are great resources, with one unfortunate downside: Many of the projects linked on the site now lead to 10-year-old dead webpages, and most members only upload photos of their homemade arcade cabinets, sans dimensions or detailed blueprints. That left us with one good option: the detailed Pac-Man cocktail plans and assembly instructions created by Kyle Lindstrom.

    Credit: Kyle Lindstrom

    Most cocktail cabinets are heavily based on the original Pac-Man cocktail, with a few tweaks here and an added control panel there to support two extra players. To make those tweaks, I decided to recreate the Pac-Man cocktail cabinet in SketchUp. Once I had a 3D model of each part, it would (hopefully) be easy to piece them together, add another control panel, and change some dimensions while making sure everything still fit together.

    After recreating the cocktail cabinet in 3D, the next phase of our build could begin: Creating a cardboard mockup, to make sure the dimensions of our modified design would give us enough control panel room. The cardboard build would also give us a good visualization of how the planned 19-inch arcade monitor would look in a slightly enlarged cabinet.

    Starting off in 2D in Sketchup

    SketchUp is a free download, and offers templates upon startup to work in millimeters, inches, feet, and so on. I started with inches, and spent a few minutes fiddling with the 3D camera before settling on a top-down perspective. Then I started drawing each Pac-Man cabinet part in 2D.

    Testing: Instagram's Hyperlapse App for iOS

    Instagram today announced and released a new iOS video app called Hyperlapse. It was a pet project of Instagram engineers Thomas Dimson and Alex Karpenko, and impressed Instagram founder Kevin Systrom enough that the company developed it into a full-fledged app. Wired Design's Cliff Kuang has an exclusive story about the app's origins, if you're curious. But after a morning of testing, here's what you need to know about it.

    Hyperlapse is a time-lapse app for iOS, much like Studio Neat's Frameographer or the time-lapse feature built into many smartphones. Unlike those apps, three isn't much to configure--you don't set the interval time between snaps, nor the framerate of your output video. You just hit record and Hyperlapse starts record, at a default rate of five frames a second (assuming 30fps output). That translates to one second of video for every six seconds of time passing--pretty fast for a time-lapse. But what makes these time-lapses a "hyperlapse" is the stabilization between captured frames, making it look like your time-lapse video was shot on a gyro-stabilized gimbal. And technically, your video is gyro-stabilized, since the app takes into account the iPhone's gyro data to match frame angles and smooth out the video movement. The result is smoother time-lapses that you'd get than just putting your phone on a tripod, without using complex motion-correction algorithms like Microsoft Research's hyperlapse project.

    I shot a few Hyperlapse videos to post on Instagram, and frankly wasn't very impressed by the output. The gyro-stabilization works to some extent, but doesn't do a good job compensating for very shaky movement. You still have to try to keep your hands still or your phone held steady against a fixed object. Also, the video output on my iPhone 5 took a long time to process for a minute-long clip, and compressed the hell out of it. Hyperlapse is really only ideal if you're shooting the Instagram-preferred 15 second clips (about three minutes in real time), and if you don't care about video compression whisking away HD details. Full clips are saved to the iPhone's camera roll, like the video I uploaded to Vimeo and embedded below. A two minute clip ended up being only 120MB on my phone, and looked worse than a stationary time-lapse I shot and exported with Frameographer.

    In Brief: USB "Condom" Protects Devices from "Juice Jacking"

    Cory Doctorow of BoingBoing shares this crowdfunded USB dongle that acts as a protective barrier between your USB device and a potentially malicious charging station. The $10 USBCondom was funded on CrowdSupply earlier this year, and is now shipping and taking pre-orders for the next production run. It works by blocking the data pins on a USB connection, only allowing power to pass through to your device. As Doctorow points out, you can also buy a USB cable that does the same thing for $9.

    Norman 3
    In Brief: The History of Headphones

    European phone handset company liGo produced this interactive guide to the 120-year history of headphones. It ends up on a weird note showcasing the current state of fashion headphones (ie. Beats), but the stuff about the development of copper headphones for home to military use is fascinating. liGo did a good job pairing each section of this web guide with era-appropriate music and media. Included in the retrospective is brief video of John C Koss (founder of the Koss headphone company) talking about bringing the first stereo headphones designed for listening to music to consumers. I've embedded it below:

    Norman 2
    In Brief: Amazon Buys Twitch for $970 Million

    Can you believe that the Variety report that Google acquired video streaming service Twitch for a billion dollars was three months ago? Three months on, and there had been no official word from either party about an acquisition, only the closing of Twitch predecessor Justin.Tv and changing policies on Twitch's platform to remove unauthorized audio. (Arstechnica's Ron Amadeo had a good take on why recent changes seemed so bizzare). Well, it seems that Google may not actually be picking up Twitch, as the Wall Street Journal today reports. Instead, it's Amazon that may be acquiring the service, with Bloomberg and Recode sources saying that the announcement could be made later today. What do you think about Amazon potentially owning and running Twitch?

    Update: Amazon has announced that it has acquired Twitch for $970 million in cash. Twitch's CEO explains the reasoning for the acquisition and that Twitch will continue operate independently from its new owner.

    Norman 4