Quantcast
Latest StoriesTablets
    Hands-On with Nvidia's Shield Tablet

    Nvidia's first Shield was a dedicated gaming handheld, but its new model is a high-end tablet with gaming accessories. We spend a little time with Nvidia's new Android gaming tablet, compare it to the original Shield portable, and give our thoughts on this device's appeal to PC and mobile gamers.

    Tested In-Depth: Adobe Ink and Slide Review

    Has anyone ever used a good stylus for the iPad? We sit down to discuss the fundamental problems with writing with a stylus on the iPad, and what tricks hardware companies use to make writing and drawing on the tablet feel as natural as possible. Plus, we test Adobe's new Ink and Slide hardware tools, as well as their new drawing apps.

    Why Are Apple's USB Chargers Are So Expensive?

    You probably don't think too much about power bricks, but you probably should. After digging deep into a wide variety of power bricks, Ken Shirriff wanted to see why Apple's 10W iPad charger costs $20 when there are counterfeits that are widely available for around $3. The result is worth reading, but Ken's evidence indicates that not only will the official brick charge your devices faster, the counterfeit he opened up is downright dangerous. (Thanks to @SolrFlare for the tip.)

    Will 10
    In Brief: Analyzing the Pixel Density Race

    Really love this piece of technical analysis by Anandtech's Joshua Ho regarding the technical merits of increasing pixel density on phone and tablet screens. Joshua dives deep not only on intrinsic manufacturing and energy costs of building increasingly high-resolution displays for phones (Samsung's next Galaxy smartphone is rumored to have a 5-inch 2560x1440 screen), but also the limits of human perception--which aren't as clearcut as they seem. Several things jumped out at me from reading the piece. First, that PPI as a standard for screen quality is relatively useless, as pixels per degree (PPD) and sub-pixels per inch (SPPI) are arguably better metrics that take into account qualitative use cases and screen manufacturing technologies. Second, that there is an important difference between the technical limitation of human eye acuity and a person's perceptual capabilities, because the brain does some interpolation in its processing of photons. And third, that this may be the beginning of a shift away from PPI (a concept Apple bought into the mainstream) as a talking point for consumers. It's really interesting to follow along as users (and reviewers) get more informed about the minute technical aspects of new devices, and to see the salient marketing points that manufacturers push to the public shift along with it. We've seen that in smartphone displays (a shift from screen size to pixel dimensions to pixel density) as well as consumer cameras (shifting from megapixels to sensor size to lens ecosystem). As users become more tech savvy, the marketers have to find new ways to spin their tech talk and try and pull wool over our eyes.

    Norman 1
    CES 2014 Impressions: Samsung's Pro Tablets

    This was bound to happen. With the very aggressive pricing on great Android tablets like the Nexus 7, manufacturers are looking for ways to sell tablets to consumers without sacrificing their profit margins. Apple has been able to use the strength of the iOS ecosystem and Apple fanbase to keep its full-size iPad line at above $500, but even they've admitted that they had to lower their typical margins for the iPad Mini--which still is $170 more expensive than the Nexus 7. On the Android side, Samsung needs to differentiate its Galaxy Tabs and Note tablets from the Nexus 7 and 10 (which they make), and they're doing it this year by introducing a Pro line. Bigger screen, high-resolution, and made with the latest tablet hardware. And even though pricing hasn't been announced, I'm willing to bet that it'll be on the high-end as well. It's what many people had speculated Apple would do with its iPad line, and I bet that's coming later this year.

    Of the Pro tablets in Samsung's lineup, the 12.2-inch Galaxy TabPro and Galaxy NotePro stand out. They're essentially the same models, but the NotePro includes Samsung's digitizer stylus--another premium product differentiator. 12.2-inches is massive, even with a 16:10 aspect ratio (2560x1600 resolution across the board). My initial impression was that this was finally a tablet that accurately display digital books and comic books at 1:1 scale, and could work as a large canvas for artists using the S-Pen. But when picking it up at Samsung's booth, all I could think about was how heavy it was. The 12.2-inch models weigh 750 grams, more than that of the original 2010 iPad (even with 3G!). After using the 2013 Nexus 7 and iPad Mini with Retina, my definition of premium prioritizes weight over screen size.

    The other thing that didn't feel right during my short time with the Galaxy NotePro was Samsung's new Android home screen replacement, called Magazine UX. The panes were packed with high-density information and live widgets, but was surprisingly sluggish for Android 4.4 running on a 2.3GHz quad-core SoC. I'm not talking about the original Galaxy Tab levels of sluggishness, but it definitely was less responsive and stuttered more than the smooth home screens of the Nexus 7 and 10. Running four apps in segmented panes noticeably affected responsiveness, and popping a Chrome "window" out onto the home screen made things worse. I'm just not sure Android and current ARM processors are meant to display so many apps at once.

    The smaller Galaxy TabPro 8.4 was much easier to hold and use with one hand, and its 2560x1600 screen looked fantastic. Other than the size of its screen, it's exactly the same as the 12.2-inch model--responsiveness on its Magazine UX home screen wasn't any better. And keeping with the premium spirit, all of Samsung's Pro tablets have faux leather backs. That's not suede, mind you--it's plastic formed to feel like leather, with fake stitching and all. And if pricing ends up being much higher than the Nexus series and other aggressively-priced competitors, Samsung's going to have to do a lot more to impress on the idea that its premium tablets are worth it.

    What Nvidia Tegra K1 Means for Mobile (and PC) Gamers

    Nvidia's 2014 refresh of its Tegra system-on-a-chip, announced on the eve of this year's CES, marks some major changes from the Tegras of years past. Tegra K1 succeeds last year's Tegra 4 with a pair of configurations: one a quad-core Cortex-A15 CPU, and the other a custom 64-bit ARMv8 Nvidia CPU. Even more importantly, K1 uses the same architecture of Nvidia's desktop GPUs, and future GPU designs will grow from mobile into desktop hardware. This leaves us with a couple important questions: How big a deal is K1 for mobile users? And how much will it influence the future of Nvidia's desktop graphics cards?

    Anandtech's breakdown of Tegra K1 gives us a good overview of the technology. The custom 64-bit Nvidia CPU making its first appearance in K1 is Project Denver, which Nvidia's been working on for years; the company first announced it in 2011. Like previous Tegra SoCs, K1 includes a fifth low-power core for battery saving. Anandtech points out that Cortex-A15 has seen some improvements since last year, primarily in energy efficiency. The move to 28nm and a max clock speed increase from 1.9GHz to 2.3 GHz means the Cortex-A15 version of K1 will be about 20 percent faster than last year's model.

    Photo credit: Nvidia.

    That's not a significant difference, even if it means some battery life improvements for Tegra devices. The Cortex-based K1 devices will be shipping in the first half of 2014. In the second half of the year, Nvidia plans to roll out Project Denver with dual-core, not quad-core, 64-bit processors. There's no low-power companion core in this configuration. The CPU is clocked at 2.5GHz, which Anandtech believes is to account for some very specialized software designed to make K1 more efficient.

    Nvidia hasn't revealed all the details about Project Denver--or most of them, really. Anandtech speculates Nvidia has built a chip capable of out-of-order execution that will make it more power- and performance-efficient, and a lot of that work is done in software. If Denver's design lives up to its potential, it could signal a major shift away from piling on CPU cores in favor of much more powerful dual-core designs, something Apple has likewise done with the iPhone.

    Photo credit: Nvidia.

    The Denver CPU is new territory for Nvidia, but the changes it's making to its mobile GPUs may be an even bigger deal for anyone who buys Nvidia hardware, be it mobile or PC. "All architectures will start as mobile designs and then be adopted to fit other, higher power segments," writes Anandtech. "Kepler makes the move into mobile largely unchanged. This is a full Kepler implementation with the same size register file, shared L1 and is 100% ISA compatible with its big brother. It turns out that Kepler, as it was originally designed, was pretty good for mobile."

    Nvidia called the K1 Kepler GPU a 192-core GPU, which just means it had 192 CUDA cores. For reference, the GTX 780 has 2304 CUDA cores, but you wouldn't call it a 2304 core GPU. Nvidia also claims that their mobile version of Kepler will deliver 1.5x the performance-per-watt of Apple's A7 and the Adreno 330 GPU. And if there's a major advantage to Kepler's mobile miniaturization, it's APIs.

    "In one swift move NVIDIA goes from being disappointing in API support to industry leading," Anandtech explains. "Since this is a full Kepler implementation (just a lower power/performing version) Tegra K1 maintains full API compatibility with NVIDIA’s flagship GeForce products. OpenGL ES 3.0 is supported but so are full OpenGL 4.4, DX11 and CUDA 6.0."

    Desktop PC users likely have nothing to worry about when it comes to Nvidia GPU architecture--the company isn't going to abandon the high-end market as it designs its GPUs to work well on mobile. But K1 is potentially a very, very big deal when it comes to mobile gaming and living room gaming. Nvidia claims it now delivers enough raw performance with K1 to outperform the Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3. Whether or not that turns out to be completely feasible in practice, Tegra K1 is at least close to that level of performance, making an affordable, mobile-based Steam Machine a likely reality.

    "NVIDIA had a port of Serious Sam 3 running on Tegra K1 demo hardware just fine," Anandtech writes. "Any games that are prepped for Steam OS are very easy to port over to Android. Once you make the move to OpenGL, the rest is allegedly fairly simple. The Serious Sam 3 port apparently took a matter of a couple of weeks to get ported over, with the bulk of the effort going into mapping controls to an Android environment."

    This video shows off Nvidia and Epic talking about how amazing the K1 will be for mobile gaming. These promises and prototypes rarely end up mirroring the reality of full games on upcoming hardware, but it goes to show how much the gaps between mobile and console and PC continue to narrow.

    If Nvidia's got hardware powerful enough to run Xbox 360 games in a smartphone form-factor, small living room boxes may not be far behind. And if easy Android ports convince more developers to support SteamOS, K1 could be a great thing for gamers.

    Testing: Pencil Bluetooth iPad Stylus

    Going to get straight to the point with this one: FiftyThree's Pencil Bluetooth Stylus isn't worth $50. It may be one of the best styli you can buy to use on an iPad--or at least the most comfortable--but ultimately disappoints as a viable alternative to writing or sketching with an actual pen or pencil on a sheet of paper. The problem isn't that Pencil fails to achieve what its creators wanted it to do, but that it, along with every other capacitive stylus for the iPad, is trying to address an unsolvable problem. The capacitive touchscreen of the iPad--and corresponding iOS finger-detection software--simply was not made to work well with a stylus.

    If you want to buy a stylus to draw or write longhand on your iPad, you have two basic options. The first is a "dumb" stylus that's essentially a pen with a rubber tip (or nib) that activates the iPad's capacitive sensors, just like your fingers. Studio Neat's Cosmonaut is a good example of this kind of stylus, but you can find alternatives in all shapes and sizes, and often at very lost cost. In this category, what matters are the ergonomics of the stylus body and the rigidity of the nib--which determines how much "feedback" you get when pressing the stylus against the screen. Many artists stand by these simple styli and are able to doodle and actually work with them.

    The other category of iPad stylus has electronics to communicate with the tablet to better simulate the pen and paper experience. These typically pair with the iPad over Bluetooth, using that connection to enable features like palm rejection, pressure sensitivity, different "brushes", and even erasing. But in order for these smarter styli to work properly, they have to be used in apps that recognize their capabilities. That's how Pencil works.

    FiftyThree (the team that worked on Microsoft's canned Courier tablet project) created Pencil to work in concert with its Paper app. We've talked about Paper before, and not much has changed since its release last year. It's still an elegant drawing app that's really simple and fun to use, with either a stylus or finger. Five different virtual brushes are available (one is free, the others are $2 each), and Paper's innovation is that it uses the speed of your brush stroke to determine the width of the line drawn. The idea is that the faster you move your finger across the screen, the less weight you're theoretically applying to the stroke; pressure is extrapolated from speed.

    That's ostensibly the reason the Pencil stylus doesn't have pressure sensitivity like other Bluetooth connected styli like Pogo's Connect or Wacom's Intuos Creative Stylus. For some digital artists, that's a deal-breaker, since Pencil won't work as well on pressure sensitivity-enabled apps like Autodesk Sketchbook Pro and Adobe Photoshop Touch. But that's not the reason I was disappointed by Pencil. The problem is latency.

    Spotify Launches Free Plans for Smartphones and Tablets

    Spotify announced a new way to listen to its garishly obnoxious advertising on Wednesday--free Spotify is coming to Android and iOS! The good news, of course, is that millions of songs are now free on tablets and smartphones, which have previously been limited to paid versions of the Spotify service. Spotify users who don't mind listening to radio ads can download the Spotify apps on iOS and Android to get at the vast musical library, which now contains Led Zeppelin's discography.

    The new free versions of Spotify on tablets and smartphones are not identical, however. Tablet users get the same features as the desktop app, because Spotify says "tablets are becoming the new desktops." That means searching through entire artist libraries, building playlists, yada yada.

    Mobile smartphone users who download Spotify for free receive a more limited interface. Spotify calls it shuffle play. You can play any music saved to your playlists, or the playlists of people you follow using Spotify's social features. You can also shuffle the libraries of artists and listen to their entire discographies that way. But there's no selective playing or searching for specific albums or songs. If you're listening on mobile, you'll do it in shuffle mode.

    The premium version of Spotify costs $10 per month. Premium subscribers ditch the audio ads and can download songs for offline listening, which is especially handy for mobile users who don't always have enough bandwidth for steady streaming.

    Testing: iPad Mini Retina vs. iPad Air Displays

    We posted our iPad Mini with Retina Display (hereinafter to be called Retina Mini) review video last week, but I wanted to share more thoughts about what I've noticed from using it, since I've been using an iPad Air as well. To reiterate what we said in the video, I don't think any normal person should buy both an iPad Air and Retina Mini, especially if they already own an iPad 3 or 4. I'm in a unique position to be in possession of both for the purposes of testing, and I can tell you upfront that having both of the new iPads does not come close to doubling the utility you would get from just having one. Not even close. In terms of app performance, battery life, and day-to-day usability, these iPads are effectively the same. It makes no sense from a single-user's perspective to delegate some tasks to a full-size iPad and others to the Mini. And since getting both, I've found myself reaching for one far more frequently than the other, and that's the Retina Mini. If someone asked me which iPad to buy today, the Retina Mini would be my recommendation.

    That's not to say that the iPad Air doesn't make sense for any potential user. But the purchasing decision becomes less of weighing the strengths of the Air and Mini against each other and more about tallying the specific situations in which you would actually need a 9.7-inch screen. And in my experience both at home and on the road, I couldn't find a situation where a larger screen was essential to the task at hand. (I still think full-page comics are too small on iPad Air, anyway.) The two inches in extra screen space afforded by the iPad Air doesn't give you more room for images or text, it just makes them physically bigger than they would appear on the Retina Mini. The pixel dimensions of the two tablets are exactly the same: 2048 by 1356. The increase in pixel density (technically, spatial resolution) of the Retina Mini's screen doesn't mean that photos and text are sharper, it means they're smaller; you actually have to hold the tablet slightly closer to your eyes to resolve iOS's native UI text. For most people with normal eyesight, this isn't a problem. But it's why folks like my parents had trouble using the Retina Mini, because they thought everything looked too small compared to what they were used to on their iPad 3. So another way to think about why someone would need the iPad Air's 9.7-inch screen is because text legibility is actually hindered by the Retina Mini's smaller screen.

    Think about Apple's definition of its "Retina" displays. The company claims that Retina doesn't denote a specific pixel dimension or density (denoted in pixels per inch, or PPI), but just a high enough pixel density so that the user's eye can't make out individual pixels from a normal viewing distance. That's why the iPad 3/4/Air class of devices can be called Retina even though they have a lower pixel density than iPhones--you naturally hold a tablet further away from your face than a phone. But this line of thinking works both ways: the "normal viewing distance" of a device is affected not only by the physical size of the screen, but the native DPI of its interface fonts and buttons. And since iOS 7 renders on the Retina Mini exactly like it does on the iPad Air (the OS and apps don't actually know what size tablet they're on, except that it's designated as Retina), everything is just shrunk down about 23 percent. You can of course pinch to zoom or adjust text DPI within individual apps, but native UI elements like notification bar text and iOS menus are fixed. (iOS 7 has a setting to increase font size for core Apple apps, as well as developer-supported apps, but not the springboard/home screen.)

    This was of course the case with last year's non-Retina Mini as well, which was even worse because it coupled a scaled-down OS UI with a 1024x768 display. I never bought last year's Mini so can't really speak to how that affected users with poor eyesight.

    The takeaway observation is readability and usability of any modern high-resolution display is a product of three factors: screen size, pixel dimensions, and text rendering. Pixel density is determined by the first two factors, but has to be balanced with text scaling for optimal readability. It's the reason why you shouldn't run Windows desktop at 100% scaling on 13-inch 3200x1800 screens (coincidentally, testing one now!), and why auto-scaling in Windows 8's Start Screen makes it look readable at most resolutions. iOS 7 doesn't have the same kind of scaling options because it's designed solely for Apple's limited hardware set. So far it's not been a problem with the two classes of iPads, but the Mini's screen size does push the limits of physical text size on a tablet.

    In fact, there's one clue in the text size on the Retina Mini that might give some insight as to how Apple would a bigger iPhone if it wanted to. We're at year's end, so forgive me for making a product prediction.

    Tested In-Depth: Apple iPad Mini with Retina Display Review

    After living with the tablet for several weeks, Will and Norm sit down to discuss Apple's iPad Mini with Retina display. We compare it to the larger iPad Air as well as other 7-inch tablets, like the 2013 Nexus 7 and Kindle Fire HDX. How much does this new iPad Mini screen really matter in day to day use?

    Tested In-Depth: Apple iPad Air Review

    Here we go. With new tablet season in full swing, we take an in-depth look at Apple's flagship tablet, the iPad Air. Here's how it compares to every single iPad before it, in size, weight, and everyday performance. And while the design improvements are impressive, it's not a tablet upgrade that we can recommend for everyone.

    FiftyThree's Releases Bluetooth Pencil for Paper App

    FiftyThree, the developer of the slick Paper app for iOS, has announced a companion accessory called Pencil. It's a Bluetooth Stylus designed to work with Paper, with several unique design features. The $60 stylus ($50 for a graphite finish) is shaped like a flat carpenter's pencil, meaning its core is more oval than circular, with flat sides on its long edge. This shape ensures that it doesn't roll off of smooth surfaces, but FiftyThree claims that it's more comfortable to grip than a circular stylus, like Studio Neat's $25 Cosmonaut. It's also different from other passive capacitive styluses in that uses a Low Energy Bluetooth connection to send data to the iPad, but this data doesn't include pressure sensitivity. In the Paper app, the thickness of your line stroke is determined by the speed at which you sketch, not how hard you push down on the page. Data is needed to account for palm rejection on the iPad, as well as an eraser function on the back of Pencil. That also means you have to charge it, but FiftyThree says a 90 minute charge will last a month of use.

    We're still unsold on the idea of iPads and other "dumb" capacitive screens as drawing surfaces; digitizers on tablets by Wacom and Microsoft have done a better job at reproducing the effect of writing and drawing on paper. Pencil's potential lies in its pairing with the Paper app, even though it will work with other iOS drawing apps. And if you recall, the founders at FiftyThree were part of J Allard's team at Microsoft working on the Courier project before it was cancelled, so this is interesting as a version of their original vision for digital productivity. We're also interested to see how it'll compare to other popular iOS styli like the Adonit Jot Mini, The Wirecutter's current pick. Pencil is on sale now and will ship to buyers before Christmas.

    Kindle Fire HDX 7 and Nexus 7 Handily Beat Retina iPad Mini in Display Shoot-Out

    The iPad Mini with Retina has arrived, and that means it's time for another DisplayMate tablet shoot-out. The Mini's competitors are Google's second-gen Nexus 7, refreshed in July, and the latest Kindle Fire HDX 7, refreshed in September. Both the Kindle Fire and the Nexus 7 cost $230, while the iPad Mini with Retina is much more expensive at $400. But DisplayMate's shoot-outs don't have anything to do with app ecosystems or prices or what's going to sell the best this holiday season. They're all about the screens.

    All three tablets go beyond 1080p in resolution--1920x1200 for the Android tablets, and 2048x1536 for the iPad Mini. Resolution isn't everything, however, and even though Apple kicked off the trend of high density displays in mobile devices, DisplayMate has found them lagging behind with the Retina Mini. It had the worst screen of the bunch.

    "Two innovative Tablet manufacturers, Amazon and Google, have significantly leapfrogged Apple by introducing Tablet displays using LTPS (in the Kindle Fire HDX 8.9 and the new Nexus 7), and they are significantly outperforming the IGZO and a-Si displays in the current iPads," DisplayMate writes. "Apple was once the leader in mobile displays, unfortunately it has fallen way behind in both Tablets and Smartphones. This should be a wakeup call…"

    LTPS and IGZO are two important pieces of transistor technology that are used in displays. We wrote about them recently. While IGZO is better than the traditional amorphous polysilicon used in many displays, it's not as good as LTPS, or low-temperature polysilicon. The problem with LTPS technology is that it's more expensive, and difficult to implement in devices with larger screens (tablets, as opposed to smartphones).

    However, both Amazon and Google have managed to get LTPS technology into tablets--the Kindle Fire HDX 8.9 and Nexus 7, respectively. Amazon's 7-inch Kindle Fire actually uses another technology, which we'll get to in a second. As DisplayMate summarizes: "Amazon and Google, have significantly leapfrogged Apple by introducing Tablet displays using LTPS...and they are significantly outperforming the IGZO and a-Si displays in the current iPads. Apple is now lagging in displays, an area where it was once the leader."

    So what's so good about the Kindle Fire HDX 7 and Nexus 7 displays? DisplayMate writes that the Nexus 7 is the brightest tablet display it's yet measured, and that thanks to LTPS technology it also has a 100 percent color gamut. The Kindle Fire also has a 100 percent color gamut, but it's using a different type of technology: a quantum dot display. This is important, as DisplayMate explains:

    Kindle Fire HDX 7 color saturation: Serious business. Image via DisplayMate.

    Quantum dots "produce highly saturated primary colors that are similar to those produced by OLED displays. They not only significantly increase the Color Gamut to 100 percent but also improve the power efficiency at the same time. Instead of using White LEDs (which have yellow phosphors) that produce a broad light spectrum that makes it hard to efficiently produce saturated colors, Quantum Dots directly convert the light from Blue LEDs into highly saturated primary colors for LCDs...Quantum Dots are going to revolutionize LCDs for the next 5+ years."

    Amazon's working with some high tech stuff with the Kindle Fire HDX 7, but based on DisplayMate's charts, the Nexus 7 performs nearly as well when it comes to color gamut and accuracy. It even scored slightly higher marks for contrast, black levels and screen reflectance. Best of all, it won out on power usage, drawing only 1.8 watts at max brightness compared to the Kindle Fire's 2.3 watts.

    While Apple still has a good display in the iPad Mini with Retina, Android's rapid advancements have easily surpassed it. Other than size, a smoother gamma scale, and an unnoticeable edge in pixel density, the iPad Mini falls behind the great displays in both $230 Android tablets. If you buy either one, you're not going to be disappointed by the screen. Check out DisplayMate's full comparison for charts and graphs galore.

    New Transistors Give iPad Air 57% Improved Display Efficiency

    According to DisplayMate's latest tablet display shoot-out, Apple's new iPad Air boasts a 57 percent bump in display power efficiency over Apple's previous iPads. Every hardware generation tends to be more efficient than the last. Apple improves its software to perform tasks more quickly and in fewer CPU cycles--that's a big draw of OS X Mavericks. Improved CPUs and wireless chips are often able to handle more data while drawing less power. But 57 percent in display efficiency is a big bump, and the iPad Air owes that improvement to a new transistor material called IGZO.

    "Displays featuring 'backplanes' of IGZO transistors should make it possible for tablets and TVs to have much higher-resolution displays while consuming significantly less power," explains Technology Review. "The technology has already cropped up in low volumes of high-end smartphones and televisions, but its appearance in iPads suggests we can expect IGZO to improve several more popular products over the next year."

    Photo credit: ifixit

    Let's back up a second here. Transistors supply electric current to LCD screens, and most LCDs are powered by amorphous silicon transistors. As display makers have chased after higher resolution panels, amorphous silicon has started to become a roadblock. Technology Review explains that "display makers have run up against the physical limits of amorphous silicon, because electrons don’t move through that material fast enough. If transistors can be made from a material with a higher degree of 'electron mobility,' the transistors can be smaller, making it possible to pack more pixels into a given space."

    IGZO, or indium gallium zinc oxide, transistors, have that higher degree of electron mobility. Ten times better than amorphous silicon, in fact. And as more displays push into super high resolution territory, we'll likely see more and more of IGZO, which will be great for battery life. However, Technology Review notes that IGZO isn't actually the most efficient transistor material around, and the iPad Air is hardly the first to make use of IGZO.

    Some competing devices, including the Amazon Kindle Fire 8.9, use a material called LTPS, or low-temperature polysilicon. DisplayMate's tests show how efficient LTPS can be:

    "The Relative Power Efficiency (for the same Luminance and screen area) is highest for the Kindle Fire HDX 8.9, which has the highest performance and most efficient LTPS Low Temperature Poly Silicon LCD. Second is the iPad Air, which has a new higher efficiency metal oxide IGZO LCD that is a 57 percent improvement over the previous iPads, which used a-Si amorphous Silicon, but it still needs 30 percent more display power than the LTPS Kindle Fire. Coming in last in Relative Power Efficiency is the Nexus 10 with an a-Si amorphous Silicon backplane that is used in most current LCD displays, which requires 73 percent more display power than the LTPS Kindle Fire."

    LTPS is more power efficient than IGZO, though more expensive and not as easy to implement in larger displays. Clearly IGZO is a step in the right direction, but it may end up as an intermediary technology between amorphous silicon and LTPS--something for 10-inch tablets and cheaper smartphones to adot for the next few years, before LTPS (or perhaps something even more efficient) becomes the dominant display transistor.

    Testing: Apple iPad Air as a Tablet Upgrade

    I've been using the iPad Air for almost two weeks now, replacing my iPad with Retina Display (we'll just call it iPad 3) that I bought last March. We'll be going in-depth with the technical details and how it directly compares with previous iPads and the new iPad Mini with Retina Display in a future video, but I wanted to share my experience with it so far.

    The iPad Air makes arguably the biggest technical jump over its predecessor of any iPad refresh; the significant reduction of weight and size a more impressive technical achievement than iPad 3's introduction of its high-resolution screen. That's coupled with the use of Apple's 64-bit A7 processor, which may be a bigger deal than even Apple hyped on stage last month. Anand has been frank about being impressed by A7's computation width (how many and what kind of instructions it can run per clock cycle) and quick access to system memory and local cache. It's future-proofing that will pay off in future apps that can make use of the speed.

    Weight. Form. Speed. Those are the three areas where the iPad Air differentiates itself most from the iPad 4. Let's go over each of these attributes to see how they have affected my day-to-day use of the tablet.

    With weight, Apple shaved off four tenths of a pound from the fourth-gen iPad to make the iPad Air weigh just over one pound (478 grams, or 1.05 pounds). One pound is a real sweet spot for large-screen tablets. It's a tablet weight I first experienced with Samsung's Galaxy Tab 8.9 back in 2011, and is well-suited for tablets that are big enough to distribute that weight over a large surface area. A 10-inch tablet at one pound is more comfortable to hold than a 7-inch tablet weighing the same because the mass is spread out more. Apple's engineers were able to get the iPad Air to that weight but reducing the battery size--from 42Whr in the iPad 3/4 to 32Whr. The iPad 2 had a 25Whr battery, so this is still larger/higher-capacity than that, which is needed to power the backlight for the high-res screen.

    Still a pound isn't light enough that you can grip the side of the iPad Air with just one hand and hold it for more than 30 minutes without feeling strain. Like previous iPads, a one-handed grip is best complemented by resting the tablet on your lap or another surface. But for the first time, the full-size iPad is also comfortable to use if you brace the wrist of your gripping hand on a crossed-knee. Just like reading a book or newspaper on the couch. Two-handed use is consequently improved when sitting up or reclining back as well. It's still not possible to hold the iPad above your head when laying flat on your back--like when laying in bed--without the risk of it falling on your face. A pound of metal and glass falling flat on your nose or head still hurts. Believe me, I tested it.

    Tested In-Depth: Microsoft Surface 2 Review

    Microsoft's second generation Surface is faster, more capable, and has a much better screen than last year's model. We sit down and discuss what's changed on the hardware and software sides and whether the improvements are enough to make this a competitive tablet.

    Testing: Microsoft Surface 2 as Tablet

    If you were to show a random person on the street Microsoft's Surface 2 and ask them what kind of computing device it is, their likely answer would be a tablet. And that wouldn't be wrong--Surface 2 is a one and half pound slab of metal with a glass touchscreen taking up the entire face of one side. But Microsoft would want that person to think of Surface 2 as more than just a tablet--at least in the iPad sense--and imbue it with the qualities people typically associate with a laptop. Slap on a Touch of Type Cover, and you've got some productivity capabilities. Like other Windows 8-based convertibles like Lenovo's Yoga, Asus's Transformer T100, or even Microsoft's Surface Pro 2, Surface 2 leads dual identities. But unlike those computers with x86 processors and run Windows 8 Pro, Surface 2 should be thought of as tablet first, laptop second--not the other way around.

    Last week I wrote about the Surface 2's capabilities as a laptop alternative (it's better than a ChromeBook, much more limited than an Ultrabook) so today we're going to discuss the experience of using it as purely a tablet. That means using it without the keyboard cover attachment and primarily for content consumption. It means using it in a mostly lean-back positions, like on the couch or in bed. (And a few lean-forward scenarios, like, yes, in the bathroom.) It also meant thinking about what most tablets mostly are good for, when not used as replacements for desktop or laptop computers. For the purposes of my testing, I focused on web browsing, e-book reading, watching video, listening to music, and staying on top of social media. Let's start with the all-important web browsing.

    Tested In-Depth: Amazon Kindle Fire HDX Tablet Review

    When the Kindle Fire was first launched two years ago, tablets were very expensive and most 7-inch tablets sucked. But now, there's pricing competition from Google's Nexus 7 and Apple's iPad Mini is crowding the market. Where does that leave the new Kindle Fire HDX? After living with it for a month, we break down its technical merits and user experience, as well as test Amazon's Mayday video support feature.