So you download the image from the Microsoft Store, put it on a USB drive. The USB drive breaks, and now you can't download it again? Is that the issue?
@Toxeia: yeah that's the issue. :(
I'd really suggest getting in touch with Microsoft about it, but otherwise your only solution is to make a full back-up in Windows. It wouldn't be a clean install though. It'd be a copy of whenever you made the back-up.