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    Maker Faire 2016: Palette Multi-Color 3D Printing

    To 3D print in multiple colors, most FDM printers need a separate print head/extruder for each filament. The Palette accessory combines four different filaments into one line that feeds into a standard 3D printer, and the multi-color results we saw at Maker Faire looked great. We chat with its inventor to learn how it works.

    Maker Faire 2016: FLUX Delta 3D Printer/Scanner/Engraver

    We take a look at the Flux Delta all-in-one machine at Maker Faire 2016. This device is a 3D printer, but you can swap out its print head to make it a model scanner, laser etcher, or plotter. After a successful Kickstarter campaign in 2014, it's finally shipping to backers.

    Meet Ryan Nagata's Sci-Fi Ray Gun Collection

    While visiting prop maker Ryan Nagata's shop, Adam Savage learns about Ryan's collection of custom ray gun replicas. These beautiful hand props are each unique in their design and inspiration, and would right at home in a mid-century sci-fi serial. Check out the one based off of WETA's Dr. Grordbort Righteous Bison!

    Testing: GeForce GTX 1080 Compute Performance

    Can Nvidia's new flagship compute? Sure it does. But how well?

    Out of idle curiosity, I ran a couple of OpenCL compute-oriented benchmarks on the GTX 1080 and three other GPUs. Bear in mind that this is more quick-and-dirty benchmarking, not rigorously repeated to validate results. The results, however, look interesting and the issue of compute on new GPUs bears further investigating.

    The Setup

    These tests ran on my existing production system, a Core i7-6700K with 32GB DDR4 running at the stock 2,133MHz effective. I used four different GPUs: GTX 1080, Titan X, GTX 980, and an AMD Radeon Fury Nano. The GTX 1080 used the early release drivers, while the other GPUs ran on the latest WHQL-certified drivers available from the GPU manufacturer's web site.

    As you can see from the table below, all four GPUs ran at the reference frequencies, including memory. When I show the results, I don't speculate on the impact of compute versus memory bandwidth or quantity. As I said: quick and dirty.

    GPUGTX 1080Titan XGTX 980Radeon Fury Nano
    Base Clock1.6GHz1.0GHz1.126GHz1.0Ghz
    Boost Clock1.73GHz1.075GHz1.216GHz1.05GHz
    Memory Bandwidth320GB/s336GB/s224GB/s512GB/s

    CompuBench CL

    The first benchmark, CompuBench CL from Hungary-based Kishonti, actually consists of a series of benchmarks, each focusing on a different compute problem. Because the compute tasks differ substantially, CompuBench doesn't try to aggregate them into a single score. So I show separate charts for each test. CompuBench CL 1.5 desktop uses OpenCL 1.1.

    Maker Faire 2016: Pocket CHIP $49 Portable Computer

    Last year, we were impressed by Next Thing Co's $9 CHIP computer. At Maker Faire 2016, we were able to check out their PocketCHIP housing, which puts CHIP into a portable console package that runs Linux and indie game console Pico-8. Here's what you can do with the $49 system!

    Maker Faire 2016: OpenROV's New Trident Drone

    We catch up with OpenROV at Maker Faire to learn about their new Trident underwater drone. This new model is faster, has a better camera, and is built to be ready to dive out of the box. It also has a unique towable receiver buoy that floats and lets you pilot the drone remotely.

    Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind's Surreal Effects

    In director Michel Gondry's Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, screenwriter Charlie Kaufman plumbs a consciousness-bending story about a man, Joel Barish (Jim Carrey), who attempts to ease the pain of a breakup by undergoing a procedure that will erase all memories of the relationship from his mind. Joel's attempts to interrupt the erasure mid-procedure – all from within his subconscious – set the story in a world that is part reality, part waking dream.

    That surreal world was the stuff of visual effects, more than 100 realized by Custom Film Effects. Buzz Image Group took on only 16 shots, but each was a critical depiction of Joel's altered mind as, one by one, his memories of Clementine (Kate Winslet) are deconstructed, abstracted and, finally, erased.

    The memory abstractions are sometimes blatant, sometimes subtle. In a sequence early in the film, Joel – in his car – follows Clementine as she walks angrily down a sidewalk. "This was a hand-held, non-effects shot," said Buzz visual effects supervisor Louis Morin, "but in the scene, Jim Carrey says a line about everything falling apart – and Michel wanted to emphasize that feeling." To visually support the idea of a world falling apart, Gondry suggested removing one of Clementine's legs in the scene. "I said: 'Okay, it's possible – but this is a swish-pan, and it is going to be so fast, nobody will see it.' But he wanted to try it; so we replaced Clem's real legs with CGI legs, did 3D tracking and remodeled the sidewalk she was walking on."

    Determined to limit the number of visual effects in the film, director Michael Gondry used in-camera trickery wherever possible. For a scene in which Joel transports Clem into his childhood memories, production built a forced-perspective kitchen set to render Jim Carrey child-size.

    The first attempt at the shot bore out Morin's initial concerns. "Nobody could see it," said Morin, "because it was so fast. I asked if they had a longer take of Clem walking, and they did – but in that one, she wasn't turning her head properly. So we combined takes in the swish-pan, tracked the head from the first take onto Clem in the longer take, and put in a whole CGI background." In that background, a car crashes behind a fence, unnoticed by Clem. "That was a CGI car and a CGI fence. It was a shocking event to keep the audience on their toes, to say, 'Look – some pretty unusual things will be shown to you in this movie.'"

    Building a Studio Scale Death Star Laser Tower Model, Part 3

    This month, prop maker David Goldberg shares with us his build of a studio-scale replica of the Death Star laser tower from Star Wars. Previously, David covered sourcing his reference, creating a 3D model, and the core structure fabrication. Today is all about the finer details!

    The original models built for the Star Wars films were detailed with hundreds of little parts taken from plastic model kits. These parts were often referred to as nernies or greeblies. This was the first time this approach to adding detail for film models had been used to such a great extent and it was one of the defining characteristics of the realistic "used hardware" look of the film. There are photographs of the ILM model shop back in the day showing entire walls stacked high with hundreds of model kit boxes. Models kits of all types and scales were used for "donor parts" but it seems there was a fondness for models of military subjects, especially tanks and other vehicles.

    A great deal of time and effort has been spent by members of the Replica Prop Forum (The RPF), Studio Scale Modelers (SSM) and other online sites analyzing photos of the original models and tracking down precisely which parts from which kits were used for the added details. Some of these model kits are still in production and many more are available on EBay, although sometimes at extremely high cost! Other than purchasing the Mig 21 kit to use for the barrels, I decided I didn't want to spend what could amount to many hundreds of dollars purchasing all of the necessary donor kits, some of which are quite rare. Instead I decided to replicate many of the parts with 3D printing, laser cutting and scratch building. In the end, several 'authentic' parts were donated for use on this project by some of the very kind members of the RPF.

    Before applying detail parts some additional layers of plating were needed. Styrene sheet, cut by hand, was used for this plating on the original models but I wanted the benefits of precision and speed that could be achieved using a laser cutter, and styrene doesn't laser cut cleanly, the edges tend to melt a little. Instead I laser cut the plating panels out of a material called Polybak, a cardboard sheeting which has been impregnated with resin to make it water resistant. Polyback is often used to back cabinet panels in moist locations and as a backer for thin wood veneering. It laser cuts beautifully and takes paint well.

    I laser cut a series of panels to go on the top of the tower as well as a bunch of randomly sized rectangular panels that I could stick on the casework wherever desired. Before cutting, I applied double-faced adhesive tape to the back of the Polyback sheet so that to attach the parts all I would have to do was peel off the backing paper and stick the parts down. In additional to the plating, several custom parts were laser cut, some with partial surface etching to represent bolt heads and other details.

    Maker Faire 2016: 3D Printed Open-Source Telepresence Robot

    We kick off our Maker Faire 2016 coverage with this awesome telepresense robot made by researchers at the Galileo University in Guatemala. The robot's body is based off of the open-source InMoov project, with remote control via an Oculus DK2 headset and Perception Neuron motion capture system. Telepresense with some sense of proprioception!

    Tested: Nvidia GeForce GTX 1080 Video Card

    GTX 1080 seems like such an odd product name, since it brings up the specter of gaming on a 1080p display. The GTX 1080 kills 1080p gaming dead, makes 1440p gaming the new normal, and finally puts 4K gaming within reach of a single GPU. While the GTX 1080 offers great performance, other attributes make the new GPU attractive for gamers. Let's be clear: the GTX 1080 represents the fastest single GPU graphics card you can buy, but performance may not be the primary reason to buy this card.

    By the Numbers

    Let's first touch on base specifications. Based on Nvidia's latest Pascal GPU architecture, Nvidia builds the GTX 1080 on a 16nm FinFET process at Taiwan's TSMC fab. This represents the first process shrink for an Nvidia GPU in two architectural generations, since the original Kepler-based GTX 680 moved to 28nm. FinFET technology incorporates transistors which extend vertically (the "fin"). FinFET reduces current leakage, enabling greater power efficiency. This allows Nvidia to build monster GPU chips without creating space heaters, if you will.

    That process technology allows Nvidia to create 7.2 billion transistor GPU using a 314mm2 die, considerably smaller than the GTX 980 die while stuffing an additional two billion transistors. This smaller, denser chip clocks at 1.6GHz base clock and 1.73GHz in boost mode; the GPU looks like it offers substantial overclocking headroom, if that floats your boat.

    In addition to all the process technology goodness, the GTX 1080 uses Micron's shiny new GDDR5X memory technology, which transfers data at 10 gigatranfers per second, boosting memory bandwidth by 30% over the GTX 1080 and within striking distance of the memory bandwidth of the massive GTX Titan while using a narrower, 256-bit memory bus. Pascal also improves on Maxwell's memory compression with its fourth generation delta color compression. Depending on game title, the new color compression techniques improve bandwidth 15-30%.

    The bottom line: the GTX 1080 has almost as many shader cores as the GTX 980 Ti, runs them 60% faster, and can move data almost as quickly. Based on these numbers alone, we'd expect a serious performance uptick.

    Building a Studio Scale Death Star Laser Tower Model, Part 2

    This month, prop maker David Goldberg shares with us his build of a studio-scale replica of the Death Star laser tower from Star Wars. In Part 1, David explained sourcing reference images and creating a 3D model. Today, he dives into the fabrication of the tower and laser cannons.

    While the some of the materials and construction methods used to build the original Death Star Laser Tower filming model are not known, it was most likely made of a core structure of either wood or Plexiglas covered with panels cut from styrene sheet. The original model also had a mechanical armature and motors inside it that would rotate the turret and move the barrels to simulate firing at the Rebel X-Wing fighters. I'm building a static, non-moving display model so an interior mechanism won't be needed. (At least for now. I've designed the casework in such a way that I can put a mechanism into it a later time if desired.)

    Laser Tower as seen in Star Wars.

    I'm going to fabricate the model using a more high tech approach than was available to the modelmakers at ILM in the 70's. Rather than hand cut styrene panels to clad the core structure, I'm going to use a CNC (Computer Numerically Controlled) router to both cut out the structural components as well as cut panels lines into the surface using the .dxf drawing files exported from the 3D computer model.

    The material from which I'll cut the casework is a special premium MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard) ¼ inch thick made by Plum Creek. This material is similar to the fiberboard found at most home center and lumber stores except that it has a smoother surface and a denser, more consistent core. It's used mostly for making paint grade cabinets and signage and paints beautifully, even the cut edges.

    The .dxf files were loaded into the computer that controls the CNC router. I use a software program called V Carve from Vectric. The .dxf files are imported into the program where the various cutting depths, speeds and bit sizes are determined. V Carve calculates and exports the "G-Code" which is a standard machine language used to control CNC machine. The G Code is then imported into a program called Mach 3 that actually sends the control signals to the stepper motors that drive the router.

    The parts were cut out of the MDF sheet material with a ¼ inch diameter router bit and the panels lines routed into the surface with a 1/16 inch diameter bit.

    Bits to Atoms: How Carbon's CLIP 3D Printing Technology Works

    Carbon3D (now going by just Carbon) has been all the buzz in the 3D printing community with their M1 printer which uses CLIP technology to greatly increase the speed and quality of DLP printing. The Tested team visited Carbon HQ outside of San Francisco to see exactly how this new tech works.

    As we've discussed before, 3D printing with UV-cured resin tends to offer the highest level of detail and choice of material (compared to 3D printing processes like FDM). Let's review the options. SLA (Stereolithography), such as the Formlabs Form 2, draws and cures each layer of resin using a laser. DLP (Digital Light Processing) uses video projector technology to draw and cure each layer in one blast. Polyjet uses an inkjet-like head to draw each layer on a platform and is cured via a UV light unit. Now, Carbon is introducing CLIP (Continuous Liquid Interface Production) which drastically increases printing speeds and improves surface finish--but how does it work?

    First let's look at the normal SLA or DLP printing process. The model is 'drawn' layer by layer via laser or projector onto a print platform and must go through a peel process after each layer. Exactly how the peel is done varies by printer and technique but it generally consists of the print platform, moving out of the way so that the resin can be redistributed for the next layer. This slows down the printing process and also requires generating support structures to hold the print steady.

    Carbon's CLIP technology eliminates the peel process by using an oxygenated layer of resin between the resin tray window and the print itself. This layer creates a dead zone which allows the print to emerge continuously from the resin tray, skipping the peel process. OK, but how does that happen? The secret is in the M1 resin tray, called a 'cassette' which holds the resin and has an oxygen-permeable window in the bottom which a DLP unit shines light through. Carbon won't divulge exactly how the chemistry works but the cassette allows a resin layer between the window and where the printing happens to be oxygenated which inhibits the curing process while still allowing the DLP light to shine through and solidify the resin above. I know--it sounds crazy.

    Meet the Carbon M1 Super Fast 3D Printer

    Watch this complex object get 3D printed in less than 15 minutes. Sean and Norm visit Carbon, the makers of the M1 3D printer, to get a demo of this new super fast 3D printing technology working in real-time. We chat with Carbon's VP of Product, Kirk Phelps, to learn how the CLIP 3D printing tech works, and why it's more than just about really fast prints.

    Maker Spaces: Inside Frank Ippolito's New Workshop!

    Our very own Frank Ippolito just moved into a new workshop, and gives us a tour of his new tools and working areas. We discuss how he grew out of sharing a shop with a friend to his first personal shop, and then doubling the space again. Frank shares how he customized the infrastructure of his shop for new tools and storage. We'll be doing some fun new projects here in the future!

    Ryan Nagata's NASA Spacesuit Replicas

    Prop maker Ryan Nagata is obsessed with NASA spacesuits, and has made the best replicas Adam has seen. While at his workshop, Adam and Ryan geek out over the process of fabricating fake spacesuits, including fabric selection, sewing, building hardware, and weathering. Plus, Adam gets a surprise!

    Building a Studio Scale Death Star Laser Tower Model, Part 1

    Hello Tested! My name is Dave Goldberg. I've been a professional model maker working in the movie and television industry for more than thirty years. These days, most all of the visual effects shots that use to be done with models are done with computer graphics, but there is a movement of people, like myself, building Studio Scale replicas of classic models from old movies. Studio Scale is a term used to describe replica models that are the same size as the original filming models.

    Like many people, Star Wars: A New Hope was a seminal film for me. It came out during my freshman year in college and immediately changed the direction of my education and career. From that moment on I wanted to build models for the movies. While I built models for many movies and televisions shows over the years I never got the opportunity to work for a Star Wars film. But now I can do the next best thing, build them for fun!

    For this project I'll be making a studio scale replica of one of the Laser Towers from the Death Star seen during the final battle in the film. I am also excited to be making this an "Open Source" project. I'll be posting the model files for anyone to use freely for non-commercial purposes. They may be used to create your own model but not to create parts, kits or finished models for sale. The repository of model files is here.

    These files are for the model as I will be building it outlined in this series of articles using CNC routing, laser cutting, kit bashing, some 3D printing and good ol' fashioned scratch building. However, if desired, a competent 3D modeler should be able to convert the master model so that the entire Tower can be 3D printed, either at Studio Scale or smaller.

    Highlights From Adam Savage's Reddit "Ask Me Anything About Making"

    In case you missed it, Adam is just back from a trip to Cleveland, where he toured some of the city's amazing maker spaces. Excited to talk about what he saw, Adam (aka "mistersavage") went on reddit for an AMAAM ("Ask Me Anything About Making"), answering maker- and maker-space-related questions for 90 minutes.

    We've gathered some of our favorite answers below; to read the full AMA, go here:

    ghostonbody: I often get anxiety and low confidence, and feel doubt about the things I make. If you ever get similar feelings, how do you overcome them, or keep making things in spite of them? What is your advice for someone who loves to be creative but feels self conscious about the things she makes?

    mistersavage: Oh my FSM all the freaking time. Dude (or dudette), just the day before yesterday we were shooting a one day build for, and nothing that I did in the shop seemed to go right. I kept screwing up. Remaking things and then boning THAT. I swear to you, I finished the day feeling like I had NO business making things. It sucked. I was blue. This happens. To EVERYONE. And it's OK. Like all emotions, good and bad, it's temporary.

    I did some good building yesterday and feel a little better. I plan to do more today. I know intellectually that my feeling like I'm an idiot at making is patently silly. That doesn't help in the moment, but in the long run my going easy on myself in that moment is what's important. I went home, had some tea, walked the dogs and talked to my wife and slowly things slid back to normal.